Multi-Client Inner-Product Functional Encryption in the Random-Oracle Model

Multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) is an extension of functional encryption (FE) in which the decryption procedure involves ciphertexts from multiple parties. In this paper, we consider MCFE schemes supporting encryption labels, which allow the encryptor to limit the amount of possible mix-and-match that can take place during the decryption. This is achieved by only allowing the decryption of ciphertexts that were generated with respect to the same label. This flexible form of FE was already investigated by Chotard et al. at Asiacrypt 2018 and Abdalla et al. at Asiacrypt 2019. The former provided a general construction based on different standard assumptions, but its ciphertext size grows quadratically with the number of clients. The latter gave a MCFE based on Decisional Die-Hellman (DDH) assumption which requires a small inner-product space. In this work, we overcome the deficiency of these works by presenting three constructions with linear-sized ciphertexts based on the Matrix-DDH (MDDH), Decisional Composite Residuosity (DCR) and Learning with Errors (LWE) assumptions in the random-oracle model. We also implement our constructions to evaluate their concrete efficiency.